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Vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids (Ω3FA) modulate periodontitis-associated inflammatory processes. The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate associations of oral nutrient intake and corresponding serum metabolites with clinical severity of human periodontitis. Within the Food Chain Plus cohort, 373 periodontitis patients—245 without (POL) and 128 with tooth loss (PWL)—were matched to 373 controls based on sex, smoking habit, age and body mass index in a nested case-control design. The amount of oral intake of vitamins and Ω3FAs was assessed from nutritional data using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Oral intake and circulatory bioavailability of vitamins and Ω3FA serum metabolomics were compared, using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Periodontitis patients exhibited a significantly higher oral intake of vitamin C and Ω3FA Docosapentaenoic acid (p < 0.05) compared to controls. Nutritional intake of vitamin C was higher in PWL, while the intake of Docosapentaenoic acid was increased in POL (p < 0.05) compared to controls. In accordance, serum levels of Docosapentaenoic acid were also increased in POL (p < 0.01) compared to controls. Vitamin C and the Ω3FA Docosapentaenoic acid might play a role in the pathophysiology of human periodontitis. Further studies on individualized nutritional intake and periodontitis progression and therapy are necessary.
Keywords: metabolite; nutrition; omega-3 fatty acid; periodontitis; vitamin C.